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Syllabus Chemistry

TDC (MAJOR) COURSE
SEMESTER I


PAPER M 101 Physical Chemistry (Total Marks 75)
Unit 1.1 Chemical Thermodynamics (Marks 25)
Definition of thermodynamic terms, closed, open and isolated system; surroundings,
energy, heat, work, internal energy. The first law, calculation of work done during
expansion of gas, thermodynamic reversibility, heat capacity, enthalpy and its
significance, significance of heat and work.
State functions and differentials; variation of internal energy and enthalpy with
temperature, Joule-Thomson experiment and liquefaction of gases; relation between Cp
and CV; Calculation of work done on adiabatic expansion; relation between P,V and T in
adiabatic processes.
Thermochemistry- standard enthalpy changes, derivation of Hess’s law and Kirchhoff’s
law. Relation of reaction enthalpy with changes in internal energy. Calculation of bond
dissociation energies from thermochemical data.
Unit 1.2 Chemical Thermodynamics (Marks 20)
The second law, entropy changes in reversible and irreversible processes. Clausius
inequality, calculation of entropy changes during various processes. Helmholtz function and Gibb’s function and the direction of spontaneous change.
Thermodynamics of chemical reactions - Equilibrium constant of a reaction in terms of
standard Gibb’s function, dependence of equilibrium constant of temperature and pressure.
Standard entropy of a reaction and standard Gibbs function of formation. Maxwell’s
relations and derivation of thermodynamic equation of state; Gibb’s-Helmholtz equation,
variation of Gibb’s function with pressure and temperature. Brief idea of partial molar
quantity, chemical potential and Gibb’s-Duhem equation.
Third law of thermodynamics – Nernst heat theorem.
Unit 1.3 Chemical Kinetics (Marks 20)
Concept of reaction rate and rate laws. Order and molecularity of reaction. Integrated rate
expression for zero, first and second order reactions. Half-life period.
Consecutive and concurrent reaction. Steady state and rate determining step
approximation. Simple problems on Steady State approximation. Experimental
determination of rate and order of reaction. Temperature dependence of reaction rate and
Arrhenius plots.
Kinetics of chain reaction, H2-Br2 reaction, thermal decomposition of ethanol, branching
and non-branching chain reaction - H2 + O2 → H2O reaction. Homogeneous catalysis,
acid-base catalysis. Enzyme catalysis, Michalis-Menten equation, effect of pH and
temperature. Zeolites and its uses in cracking and reforming of petroleum.
Internal assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 102 Organic Chemistry (Total Marks 75)
Unit 1.4 Introduction to Organic Compounds (Marks 15)
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Hybridization of carbon in organic
compounds. Bond angles, bond length and bond energies. Electron delocalization effects
in organic compounds, tautomerism. Hydrogen bonding and its effect on the properties of
organic molecules. Acid-base behaviour, pKa values and factors effecting acidity/
basicity of organic compounds.
Unit 1.5 Stereoisomerism (Marks 20)
Types of steroisomerism - conformational and configurational isomers, enantiomers &
diastereomers, π-distereomers- differences in physical and chemical properties of π-
diastereomers. Syn/anti, cis/trans & E/Z designation. Stereomutation of π-diastereomers.
Cis- trans isomerism in cycloalkanes- (upto 6- membered rings)
Enantiomers - optical activity, asymmetry, dissymmetry or chirality, racemic
modification, & methods of resolution of racemic modification & projection formula-
Flying-wedge formula, Fischer, Newman & Sawhorse projection. Criteria for showing
optical activity, examples of optically active molecules without chiral centre,
Atropisomerism.
Unit 1.5 Organic Reaction Mechanism1 (Marks 30)
Idea of driving force, activation energy, transition state, energy profile diagrams, concept
of kinetic and thermodynamic control of reactions, Homolytic and heterolytic bond
fission, Types of reagents-electrophiles and nucleophiles. Types of reaction
intermediates- carbocations carboanions, carbenes, free radicals nitrenes arynes.
Mechanism of organic reactions
A. Addition reactions : electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical mechanism.
B) Substitution reactions : electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical mechanism
B. Elimination reaction : β−elimination reaction - base catalysed and pyrolytic
elimination reactions.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 103 Practical (Total Marks 50)
A. General Experiment (any one of the following to be done in Exam)
(Marks 30)
1. To determine the solubility of a given salt at different temperatures and to plot
solubility curve.
2. To determine water of crystallization of hydrated salt by ignition and
weighing.
3. Determinations of the concentrations of sodium carbonate and sodium
hydroxide in a given mixture.
4. To study the kinetics of the reaction between H2O2 and iodide ion.
5. Kinetics of Clock reaction between S2O32- and HCl.
6. Study the adsorption of oxalic acid on activated charcoal
7. Estimation acetic acid in vinegar by conductometry.
8. Column chromatographic/ TLC separation of pigments from green leaves.
9. Separation of a mixture of benzoic acid, 2-naphthol and 1,4-
dimethoxybenzene by solvent extraction and identification of their
functional groups.
10. Paper chromatographic separation and identification of sugars.
B. Sessional (Marks 10)
C. Viva (Marks 10)

Semester III

PAPER M 301 Structure and Bonding (Total Marks 75)
Unit 3.1 Atomic Structure (Marks 40)
Learning Structure of hydrogen-like atoms and their representation in quantum
mechanical terms. Basic quantum mechanical ideas and principles leading to atomic
structure (outline only without details) :
a) Particle character of radiation - black body radiation phenomenon - Planck’s
hypothesis : Postulates and explanation for black body radiation.
b) Wave character of particles-electron diffraction.
c) Discrete nature of energy levels of atomic and molecular systems, line spectra
of atoms (e.g., hydrogen) and molecules (e.g.N2O).matter-de Broglie hypothesis.
d) Dual nature of matter-de Broglie hypothesis. e) The defining limit of classical
mechanics-the uncertainty principle.
f) Definition of micro and macro particles.
g) Necessity of quantum mechanical equation.
h) Schrodinger equation-statement and identity of terms. Energy eigenvaluesexpression
alone. Energy eigenfunctions: Setting up of expressions of radial( R)
and angular( Y) parts for 1s,2s,2po,2p+1,2p-1,2px,2py,2pz orbital, Born
interpretation of the wave functions, Orbital concept-one electron wave functions,
Plots of and ψ2 for 1s,2s,2p,2px,2py,2pz,3dxy,3dzx orbital. n,l,m quantum numbersorigin
and significance(outline only).
i) The concept of spin and spin quantum numbers (outline only).Many electron
atoms. Electron repulsion in the He atom. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Aufbau
principle and electron configuration of many electron atoms.
j) Effective nuclear charge-shielding and penetration effects. Electron Configuration of
atoms.
Unit 3. 2 Chemical Bonding I
(Marks 25)
Lewis electron pair bond. Valence bond approach to bonding in diatomic moleculesoutline
of concept of overlap ( HF and H2 ). Resonance and resonance energy in HF and
benzene. Bond moments and dipole moments (outline with simple pictorial
representation). Percent ionic character of HCl and HF bonds. Formal charges on atoms
in molecules. Concept of electro negativity -explanation of molecular properties on the
basis of electro negativity.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 302 (Total Marks 75)
Unit 3.3 Chemical Bonding II (Marks 20)
Shapes of molecules- VSEPR theory, hybrid orbital and hybridization in polyatomic
molecules-influence of hybridization on bond length, bond angle and other properties of
molecules including shapes and dipole moments. Effects of structure on molecular
properties- steric effects and electronic effects.
Unit 3.4 Chemical Bonding III (Marks 25)
Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules ( N2, O2, F2,CO, NO
etc).Graphical representation of angular parts of the wave function( H2+ molecule
ion).Energy levels, electronic configuration of ground states of diatomic molecules.
Setting up of the wave functions and energy level diagrams for H2 molecules without
calculations. Multicentre bonding( diborane);MOs of simple triatomic systems (
BeH2,H2O,NO2);Multiple bonding, orbital picture and energy of ethane,ethyne and
benzene; Huckel’ s aromaticity rule.Delocalisition vs. Resonance; bond energy; bond
length and covalent radii. Bonding in metals (band theory); properties consequent from
Band theory.
Unit 3.5 Ionic Bonds and Solids (Marks 20)
Types of solids, macroscopic properties of solids, properties of ionic compounds; types
of unit cells; crystal lattices and Miller indices; crystal system and Bravais lattices.Closed
packed structures, ionic radii; radius ratio and structures; Spinel and Perovskite
structures, Lattice energy of ionic solids; Born- Haber cycle-calculations; Covalent
character of ionic bonds-Fajan’s rules of polarization. Inter-molecular forces-dipole
moment and molecular polarisability. Molecular solids; Hydrogen bonding and its effect
on physical properties.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 303 Practical
(Total Marks 50)
A. Qualitative Inorganic Analysis (Marks 30)
Analysis of a mixture of salts containing total of five cations and anions including
insoluble salts and interfering anions.
Marks distribution :
1. Physical properties and solubility 2 marks
2. Preliminary Dry tests 4 marks
3. Dry test for acid radicals 4 marks
4. Wet test for acid radical 4 marks
5. Confirmatory test 2 marks
6. Group analysis 4 marks
7. Conclusion and remarks (2x5=10) 10 marks
B. Sessional (Marks 10)
C. Viva (Marks 10)

 

Semester V

PAPER M 501 : Quantum Chemistry (Total Marks 75)
Unit 5.1 Quantum Theory Marks 30
Review of experiments leading to the idea of quantization –
(a). Black body radiation – Planck’s hypothesis
(b). Photoelectric effect – Einstein’s explanation
(c). Compton effect
Electron diffraction, de Broglie hypothesis, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
Postulates of Quantum mechanics.
Wave functions, Operators, Eigen functions and eigen values, the Schrodinger postulates
of operator transforms and the wave equation boundary conditions, normalization of the
wave functions, expectation values. Interpretation of the wave function – orthogonal and
orthonormal wave functions.
Model systems – particle in 1D and 3D boxes – particle in a ring, harmonic oscillator
and rigid rotator (detailed mathematical treatment not necessary) : coordinate systems –
construction of
Hamiltonian – potential function leading to potential energy term – Schrodinger
equation, outline of solution, energy expression, wave functions, quantum numbers.
Special features like degeneracy, energy level diagrams, plot of wave functions and their
squares vs displacement from origin, zero point energy, quantum mechanical tunneling,
force constant and bond strength (for harmonic oscillator), moment of inertia in 3D,
angular momentum, space quantization of angular momentum (for rigid rotator).
Qualitative discussion of all these topics.
Unit 5.2 Atomic Structure Marks 20
The Hamiltonian and Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atom, energy levels and
quantum numbers, the radial and the angular part of the wave function, construction of
two dimensional plots of probability density and calculation of radial probability
functions. The orbitals of hydrogen and hydrogen-like atmos, contour diagrams of
electron density. Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin and spin quantum number –
spin orbitals. Electron configuration of many electron atoms, Pauli’s exclusion principle
– illustration by He atom using wave functions.
Spin-orbit interactions, Russel-Saunder’s coupling, Term symbols. Effect of magnetic
field on energy levels. Hund’s rule.
Unit 5.3 The Nature of Chemical Bond Marks 15
Schrodinger equation for a molecule, Born-Oppenheimer approximation. LCAO-MO
theory as applied to H2+ and H2 - drawback of MO theory. MO energy level diagram of
homonuclear (O2, N2) and heteronuclear (HF, LiF, CO) diatomic molecules. Heitler-
London theory – wave function and potential energy curve of H2. Concept of resonance
and hybridisation from VB theory. Term symbols of diatomic molecules. Huckel theory
for ethene and benzene.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 502 Physical Chemistry (Total Marks 75)
Unit 5.4 Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Marks 15)
Collision theory, Activated complex theory; Erying equation – thermodynamic
formulation. Theory of unimolecular reactions (Lindemann) – dynamic molecular
collisions – potential energy surfaces – Molecular beam technique and results of
molecular beam studies. Reactions in solution, Bronsted- Bjerrum equation, Kintic salt
effect. Introduction to lasers, flash photolysis.
Unit 5.5 Photochemistry (Marks 15)
Laws of photochemical equivalence, Quantum yield, chemical actinometry Kinetics of
H2-Br2 , H2-Cl2 reactions, Dissociation of HI, Photostationary equilibrium, Dimerisation
of anthracene.
Luminescence phenomenon – fluorescence, phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram,
Photosensitised reactions, Quenching of fluorescence. Chemi and bio luminescence.
Photochemistry of air and air pollution.
Unit 5.6 Phase Equilibria (Marks 20)
Definition of phase, meaning of components and degrees of freedom. Derivation of phase
rule. Phase diagram of one component system (water). Phase diagram of two component
system – eutectics, congruent and incongruent melting points, solid solutions.
Interpretation of liquid-vapour, liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase diagrams. Distillation
of partially miscible liquids.
Clausius Clapeyron equation for different phases. Systems of variable composition,
partial molar quantities, Gibbs Duhem equation, Thermodynamics of mixing.
Chemical potential, chemical potential of a component in an ideal mixture – fugacity,
activity coefficients. Dependence of chemical potential on temperature and pressure.
Unit 5.7 Surface Chemistry (Marks 15)
Introduction to solid surfaces, adsorption on surfaces – physisorption and chemisorption.
Adsorption isotherms – Langmuir, Freundlich, BET equation. Determination of surface
area, Catalytic activity at surface with examples.
Concept of surface excess, Gibbs equation, surface pressure and surface spreading.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 503 Organic Chemistry (Total Marks 75)
Unit 5.8 Organic Reaction Mechanisms (Marks 35)
A. Molecular Rearrangements of the types
Nucleophilic or anionotropic : Whitmore 1,2 Shift, Wagner-Meerwein, Wolff,
Hofmann, Lossen, Curtius, Schmidt, Beckman, Favorskii, Benzil- benzilic acid,
Baeyer Villiger
Free radical : Wittig
Electrophilic or cationotropic : Pinacol
Special : Fries rearrangement ( aromatic electrophilic substitution)
Stevens (ion pairs in solvent cage/ radical pair)
B. Oxidation - reduction : common oxidizing and reducing agents.
i) Direct electron transfer: Clemmensen (Nakabayashi mechanism)
ii) Hydride transfer
iii) Hydrogen Atom Transfer: Bouveault-Blanc
iv) Formation of ester intermediate: oxidation by dichromate, permanganate, etc.
v) Displacement mechanism.
vi) Addition- elimination.
Oxidizing agents : Chromium oxide, selenium dioxide, Chromyl chloride, PCC,
and Lead tetraacetate.
Catalytic hydrogenation (Pd, Pt, Raney Ni). Reduction by LAH, Sodium
Borohydride and metals (Birch). Reduction of nitro group under various
condition. Selective reduction- Rosenmund reduction, Lindlars catalyst.
C. Pericyclic Reactions
Definition and examples of 2+2 and 2+4 cycloadditions. The conservation of
orbital symmetry. Woodward Hoffman rules. Diels Alder reaction, 1,3 Dipolar
Cycloaddition. Sigmatopic rearrangements-Cope and Claisen rearrangements.
Electrocyclic reactions- HOMO-LUMO approach.
Unit 5.9 Polynuclear Aromatics, Nitro and amino compounds, Organo S and
organo P Compounds, Active methylene compounds and Heterocyclic compounds
(Marks 30)
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
Structure, bonding, properties and reactivity of naphthalene and its derivatives.
Anthracene, phenanthrene
and anthraquinone-important methods of synthesis.
Nitro and amino compounds
Synthesis, physical properties and reactivity of nitroalkanes, alkyl nitrates, alkyl
nitriles, isonitriles and
aromatic nitro compounds. Synthesis, reactions and basicity of aliphatic and aromatic
amines.
Diazotization and its mechanism. Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary
amines,
Quarternary ammonium salts, Hofmann exhaustive methylation and Hofmann
degradation of amines.
Organo S and organo P compounds
Synthesis and reactions of thiols, thioethers and aliphatic sulphonic acids. Phosphines,
Phosphorous esters
and phosphorous ylides- Wittig reaction.
Active methylene compounds
The active methylene groups, synthesis of compounds containing active methylene
groups (Ethylacetoacetate, Diethylmalonate and cynaoacetic ester) and their use in
organic synthesis.
Heterocyclic compounds
IUPAC nomenclature, Synthesis, structure and bonding, properties (basicity,
aromaticity) and reactions of pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, indole and quinoline.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 504 Inorganic Chemistry (Total Marks 75)
Unit 5.10 Bonding in Coordination Compounds (Marks 25)
Symmetry elements and Symmetry operation, Point group classification, Symmetry of
octahedron, tetrahedron and square planar complexes, Structure and symmetry of
inorganic compounds(coordination 2-8), Shape and symmetry of s,p and d orbital.
Crystal field theory, factors affecting 10 Dq value, crystal field stabilization energy,
Magnetic properties from crystal field theory, high spin and low spin complexes,
structural and thermodynamic affects of orbital splitting, octahedral coordination in
Spinels. Adjusted crystal field (or Ligand field) theory, Molecular orbital theory of
octahedral complexes (without and with p bonding).
Metal-metal bonding and quadruple bonds.
Unit 5.11 Organometallic Compounds (Marks 30)
Synthesis, structure and bonding of complexes with olefins, acetylene, allyl,
cyclopentadiene and arenas. IUPAC nomenclature. Effective Atomic number rule,
Transition metal to carbon sigma bonds.
Homogeneous catalysis by transition metal complexes (isomerzation, hydrogenation,
hydroformylation and Ziegler-Natta Polymerization).
Synthesis and structure of organomettalic compounds of Sn and Pb, Organometallic
compounds of Zn, Cd and Hg.
Unit 5.12 Bioinorganic Chemistry I (Marks 10)
Essential and trace elements and their biological role, Importance of Na/K salts and
calcium in biology.
Uptake and storage of iron, Introduction to the structure and function of hemoglobin,
Synthetic dioxygen carriers, Dioxygen toxicity.
Internal Assessment (Marks 10)

PAPER M 505 Practical (Total Marks 75)
A. Inorganic Quantitative Analysis (Marks 40)
Estimation of inorganic ions by volumetric, complexometric, gravimetric, redox and
precipitation methods.
The following one-component systems should be estimated first: Cu, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ni, Cl
and SO42-. This should be followed by separation and estimation of individual ions in
two-component systems ofa.
Cu and Fe
b. Fe and Ca
c. Ca and Mg
d. Cu and Ni and
e. Cl- and SO42-.
(Any one of the above mixtures will be given for estimation in examination.
Determination of marks: Preparation of standard solution and standardization 10 marks.
Separation of components 5 marks, Completion of the experiment 10 marks, and Results
25 marks.)
B. Chromatographic separation of cations by paper/TLC (Marks 15)
Colorimetric estimation of Cu2+.
(Any one of these two experiments is to be done in the examination)
C. Sessional (Marks 10)
D. Viva (Marks 10)

PAPER 506 Practical (Total Marks 75)
A. Organic preparation (Marks 25)
Any one of the following will have to be done in the examination :
a). Acetylation : Preparation of - acetanilide from aniline and aspirin from salicylic
acid.
b). Benzoylation : Preparation of benzanilide from aniline.
c). Nitration : Preparation of - m-dinitrobenzene and p-nitroacetanilide from
acetanilide.
d). Halogenation : Preparation of p-bromoacetanilide from acetanilide and 2,4,6-tribromophenol from phenol.
e). Diazo-coupling : Preparation of methyl orange.
f). Oxidation : Preparation of benzyl from benzoin.
g). Reduction : Preparation of m-nitroaniline from m-dinitrobenzene.
(Distribution of marks : Yield & Quality of the compound – 10, Recrystallisation & melting point – 10, completion – 5.)
C. Organic quantitative analysis (Marks 30)
Any one of the following experiments will be asked in the examination :
a). Determination of the equivalent mass of a carboxylic acid by direct titration
method.
b). Determination of saponification equivalent of an ester.
c). Determination of amount of glucose by titration with Fehling solution.
d). Estimation of urea by hypobromite method.
(Disttribution of Marks : Theory – 4, Preparation of standard solution & standardization – 6,
completion – 5, Result – 15.)
D. Sessional (Marks 10)
E. Viva (Marks 10)

 

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